Cortical superficial siderosis predicts early recurrent lobar hemorrhage

Neurology. 2016 Nov 1;87(18):1863-1870. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003281. Epub 2016 Sep 30.


Objective: To identify predictors of early lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) recurrence, defined as a new ICH within 6 months of the index event, in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).

Methods: Participants were consecutive survivors (age ≥55 years) of spontaneous symptomatic probable or possible CAA-related lobar ICH according to the Boston criteria, drawn from an ongoing single-center cohort study. Neuroimaging markers ascertained in CT or MRI included focal (≤3 sulci) or disseminated (>3 sulci) cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH), cerebral microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities burden and location, and baseline ICH volume. Participants were followed prospectively for recurrent symptomatic ICH. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of early recurrent ICH adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: A total of 292 patients were enrolled. Twenty-one patients (7%) had early recurrent ICH. Of these, 24% had disseminated cSS on MRI and 19% had cSAH on CT scan. In univariable analysis, the presence of disseminated cSS, cSAH, and history of previous ICH were predictors of early recurrent ICH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). After adjusting for age and history of previous ICH, disseminated cSS on MRI and cSAH on CT were independent predictors of early recurrent ICH (hazard ratio [HR] 3.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-11.17, p = 0.011, and HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.13-10.73, p = 0.030, respectively).

Conclusions: Disseminated cSS on MRI and cSAH on CT are independent imaging markers of increased risk for early recurrent ICH. These markers may provide additional insights into the mechanisms of ICH recurrence in patients with CAA.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
  • Cerebral Cortex / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / complications*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / genetics
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Recurrence
  • Siderosis / complications*
  • Siderosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Siderosis / genetics
  • Siderosis / pathology*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed


  • Apolipoproteins E