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. 2016 Sep 30;17(10):1660.
doi: 10.3390/ijms17101660.

Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

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Free PMC article

Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

Youngjoo Lee et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Chronic stress generally experienced in our daily lives; is known to augment disease vulnerability by suppressing the host immune system. In the present study; the effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) on chronic stress-induced immunosuppression was studied; this Aloe compound was characterized in our earlier study. Mice were orally administered with MAP for 24 days and exposed to electric foot shock (EFS; duration; 3 min; interval; 10 s; intensity; 2 mA) for 17 days. The stress-related immunosuppression and restorative effect of MAP were then analyzed by measuring various immunological parameters. MAP treatment alleviated lymphoid atrophy and body weight loss. The numbers of lymphocyte subsets were significantly normalized in MAP-treated mice. Oral administration of MAP also restored the proliferative activities of lymphocytes; ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell proliferation; antibody production; and the cell killing activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In summary; oral administration of MAP ameliorated chronic EFS stress-induced immunosuppression.

Keywords: chronic stress; electric foot shock (EFS); immune restoration; in vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL); modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP).

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Alleviative effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) against chronic electric foot shock (EFS) stress-induced atrophy of immune apparatus and weight loss. NT (No treatment), normal control; EFS only, EFS stress-induced mice; EFS + MAP 80, EFS stress-induced mice treated with a low dose (mg/kg) of MAP 80; EFS + MAP 160, EFS stress-induced mice treated with a high dose (mg/kg) of MAP 160. Average body weight (A) was measured every four days until sacrifice. The thymus and spleen were excised and weighed after sacrifice (B). Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 20. ** p < 0.01, compared to control levels.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Protective effect of MAP against chronic EFS stress-induced disturbance in thymocyte and splenocyte cellularity. Mice are grouped as described in Figure 1. Lymphocyte subsets of the thymus (A) and spleen (B) were analyzed using flow cytometry, in which 10,000 cells were scored. Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 7. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared with control.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Protective effects of MAP on chronic EFS stress-induced suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. Mice are grouped as described in Figure 1. Isolated mice splenocytes were co-cultured with (A) Con A or (B) LPS. Proliferation of splenocytes was measured using 3(H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 7. ** p < 0.01 compared with control.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Protective effect of MAP against chronic EFS stress-induced disturbance of lymphocyte cellularity in OVA-immunized mice. Mice are grouped as described in Figure 1. Immunization with OVA was previously achieved in mice. Cellularity of lymphocytes in the (A) thymus and (B) spleen was analyzed using flow cytometry in which 10,000 cells were scored. Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 5. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared with control.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Immune enhancing effect of MAP on OVA-specific IgG production and OVA-specific T cell generation in chronically stressed mice. Mice are grouped as described in Figure 1. Immunization of OVA peptide was achieved in mice. Serum lgG levels of collected blood were monitored using ELISA analysis (A); Isolated T cells from OVA-immunized mice and OVA-pulsed bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) were co-cultured and DNA synthesis of T cells was measured using 3(H)-thymidine incorporation. T cells only, T cells from NT group, and BMDCs only, OVA-pulsed BMDCs were also separately cultured (B). Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 5, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared with control.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Immune enhancing effect of MAP on activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in chronically stressed mice. Mice are grouped as described in Figure 1 and were OVA-immunized. (A) Histogram peaks show number of target cells in untreated PBS-immunized group, determined to indicate level of two target cell populations; (B) Specific killing (%) of OVA (257–264) peptide-pulsed target cells in the spleen. Ratio of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)high and CFSElow was calculated as a numerical value to present specific killing. Values are means ± SEM of three experiments, n = 5, ** p < 0.01 compared with control.

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