Dystonia type 1 (DYT1) is a dominantly inherited neurological disease caused by mutations in TOR1A, the gene encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein torsinA. Previous work mostly completed in cell-based systems suggests that mutant torsinA alters protein processing in the secretory pathway. We hypothesized that inducing ER stress in the mammalian brain in vivo would trigger or exacerbate mutant torsinA-induced dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we crossed DYT1 knock-in with p58(IPK)-null mice. The ER co-chaperone p58(IPK) interacts with BiP and assists in protein maturation by helping to fold ER cargo. Its deletion increases the cellular sensitivity to ER stress. We found a lower generation of DYT1 knock-in/p58 knock-out mice than expected from this cross, suggesting a developmental interaction that influences viability. However, surviving animals did not exhibit abnormal motor function. Analysis of brain tissue uncovered dysregulation of eiF2α and Akt/mTOR translational control pathways in the DYT1 brain, a finding confirmed in a second rodent model and in human brain. Finally, an unbiased proteomic analysis identified relevant changes in the neuronal protein landscape suggesting abnormal ER protein metabolism and calcium dysregulation. Functional studies confirmed the interaction between the DYT1 genotype and neuronal calcium dynamics. Overall, these findings advance our knowledge on dystonia, linking translational control pathways and calcium physiology to dystonia pathogenesis and identifying potential new pharmacological targets.
Significance statement: Dystonia type 1 (DYT1) is one of the different forms of inherited dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, disabling movements. DYT1 is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein torsinA. How mutant torsinA causes neuronal dysfunction remains unknown. Here, we show the behavioral and molecular consequences of stressing the ER in DYT1 mice by increasing the amount of misfolded proteins. This resulted in the generation of a reduced number of animals, evidence of abnormal ER protein processing and dysregulation of translational control pathways. The work described here proposes a shared mechanism for different forms of dystonia, links for the first time known biological pathways to dystonia pathogenesis, and uncovers potential pharmacological targets for its treatment.
Keywords: dystonia; eif2alpha; endoplasmic reticulum; p58; proteomics; torsina.
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