Interaction of SARS and MERS Coronaviruses with the Antiviral Interferon Response

Adv Virus Res. 2016;96:219-243. doi: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.006. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system. Here, we review the recent progress in our understanding of the strategies that highly pathogenic coronaviruses employ to escape, dampen, or block the antiviral interferon response in human cells.

Keywords: Interferon; MDA5; MERS-CoV; PKR; RIG-I-like receptors; SARS-CoV; Viral countermeasures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / pathology
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion*
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Interferon-alpha / genetics*
  • Interferon-alpha / immunology
  • Interferon-beta / genetics*
  • Interferon-beta / immunology
  • Interferon-gamma / genetics*
  • Interferon-gamma / immunology
  • Janus Kinase 1 / genetics
  • Janus Kinase 1 / immunology
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus / genetics*
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus / immunology
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus / pathogenicity
  • RNA, Double-Stranded / genetics
  • RNA, Double-Stranded / immunology
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • RNA, Viral / immunology
  • SARS Virus / genetics*
  • SARS Virus / immunology
  • SARS Virus / pathogenicity
  • STAT Transcription Factors / genetics
  • STAT Transcription Factors / immunology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / immunology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / pathology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / virology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Proteins / immunology

Substances

  • Interferon-alpha
  • RNA, Double-Stranded
  • RNA, Viral
  • STAT Transcription Factors
  • Viral Proteins
  • Interferon-beta
  • Interferon-gamma
  • JAK1 protein, human
  • Janus Kinase 1