Syndromic Craniosynostosis

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2016 Nov;24(4):531-543. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2016.06.008.


Syndromic craniosynostosis affects up to 1:30,000 live births with characteristic craniofacial growth restrictions, deformities, and other associated abnormalities, such as carpal-pedal anomalies and cognitive function impairment. More than 150 syndromes are associated with craniosynostosis. This article describes some commonalities and distinguishing features and management of syndromic synostosis. Also addressed is secondary synostosis, which is often found in syndromic children with problems related to microcephaly, hydrocephalus, or shunt-induced craniosynostosis, although pathophysiologically and genetically different. The importance of obtaining a thorough history and a complete physical and examination is highlighted. Adjuvant testing and multidisciplinary management are discussed.

Keywords: Apert syndrome; Craniofacial syndromes; Crouzon syndrome; FGFR mutations; Muenke syndrome; Pfeiffer syndrome; Saethre-Chotzen syndrome; Syndromic craniosynostosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Craniofacial Dysostosis* / complications
  • Craniofacial Dysostosis* / diagnosis
  • Craniofacial Dysostosis* / genetics
  • Craniofacial Dysostosis* / surgery
  • Craniosynostoses* / complications
  • Craniosynostoses* / diagnosis
  • Craniosynostoses* / genetics
  • Craniosynostoses* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction
  • Syndrome