Three hundred eight patients with strabismus were treated with botulinum A toxin (Oculinum) chemodenervation; 153 were followed by the authors for at least 6 months. In this study group, 97 received botulinum A toxin injections as the primary method of treatment of their ocular deviation. Fifty-six received injections after traditional extraocular muscle surgery. Botulinum A toxin was useful for management of patients with recent surgical overcorrections and for management of some patients with sixth cranial nerve palsy. Chemodenervation of an extraocular muscle was not as successful as traditional strabismus surgery for treatment of infantile esotropia and other comitant deviations. Botulinum A toxin injection was ineffective in patients who had restrictive strabismus. This drug has limited application in the management of patients with strabismus.