Seventy-one conjunctival melanocytic proliferations in patients 20 years of age or younger were examined. Sixty-five (91.5%) were nevi; there were three cases (4.2%) of racial or acquired melanosis, and three patients were identified who had malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva. The melanoma patients are presented in detail, and additional cases of conjunctival melanoma in children and adolescents reported in the literature are reviewed to determine factors that might influence prognosis. The number of cases is so small, however, that factors cannot be identified with confidence. Follow-up data are presented. Conjunctival nevi are relatively common in children, and appear to carry no risk for the development of melanoma during childhood. However, -conjunctival melanomas do occur rarely in children and have a variable prognosis.