Photobiomodulation by Infrared Diode Laser: Effects on Intracellular Calcium Concentration and Nitric Oxide Production of Paramecium

Photochem Photobiol. 2016 Nov;92(6):854-862. doi: 10.1111/php.12644. Epub 2016 Nov 3.


In Paramecium, cilia beating is correlated to intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Recent findings affirm that photobiomodulation (PBM) can transiently increase the [Ca2+ ]i in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of both 808 and 980 nm diode laser irradiated with flat-top hand-piece on [Ca2+ ]i and NO production of Paramecium primaurelia, to provide basic information for the development of new therapeutic approaches. In the experiments, the laser power in CW varied (0.1; 0.5; 1; and 1.5 W) to generate the following respective fluences: 6.4; 32; 64; and 96 J cm-2 . The 6.4 J cm-2 did not induce PBM if irradiated by both 808 and 980 nm diode laser. Conversely, the 32 J cm-2 fluence had no effect on Paramecium cells if irradiated by the 808 nm laser, while if irradiated by the 980 nm laser induced increment in swimming speed (suggesting an effect on the [Ca2+ ]i, NO production, similar to the 64 J cm-2 with the 808 nm wavelength). The more evident discordance occurred with the 96 J cm-2 fluence, which had the more efficient effect on PBM among the parameters if irradiated with the 808 nm laser and killed the Paramecium cells if irradiated by the 980 nm laser. Lastly, the 980 nm and 64 or 96 J cm-2 were the only parameters to induce a release of stored calcium.

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / analysis*
  • Infrared Rays*
  • Intracellular Fluid / chemistry
  • Lasers, Semiconductor*
  • Nitric Oxide / chemistry
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Paramecium / metabolism*
  • Photobiology


  • Nitric Oxide
  • Calcium