Food cravings among Brazilian population

Appetite. 2017 Jan 1:108:212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Oct 6.


This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

Keywords: Brazilian; Eating behavior; Food cravings; Validation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Brazil
  • Bread
  • Candy
  • Chocolate
  • Craving*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Dietary Sugars
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Feeding Behavior / ethnology
  • Female
  • Food Preferences* / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Report
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Sugars