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. 2017 Mar;274(3):1577-1583.
doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4334-5. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Types of Laryngomalacia in Children: Interrelationship Between Clinical Course and Comorbid Conditions

Free PMC article

Types of Laryngomalacia in Children: Interrelationship Between Clinical Course and Comorbid Conditions

Beata Kusak et al. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. .
Free PMC article


The aim of this study was to: (1) find out whether laryngomalacia (LM) types are related to clinical course; (2) which patients with LM are at higher risk of other airway malacia [tracheomalacia (TM) and/or bronchomalacia (BM)]; and (3) evaluate the prevalence of LM in our region. Patients with established LM diagnosis and complete clinical and endoscopy records were enrolled. They were classified into different LM types according to classification based on the side of supraglottic obstruction. One hundred ten children were included. The most common LM appearance was type I-58 children, followed by combine types (I + II and I + III)-38. The other airway malacia were found in 47 patients: TM in 31, BM in 10, and TM with BM in 6. Other comorbidities (cardiac, neurological, and genetic disorders) were identified in 30 children. Patients with combine types of LM differ from those with single type of LM in terms of prematurity (13 vs 31 %, p = 0.04) and higher weight on the examination day (p = 0.006). Patients with other airway malacia differ from children with isolated LM in terms of prematurity (40 vs 13 %, p = 0.008), comorbidities (38 vs 19 %, p = 0.024), and lower weight on the examination day (p = 0.014). The prevalence of clinically relevant LM was one in 2600-3100 newborns. Clinical course of LM cannot be anticipated on the basis of solely endoscopic evaluation of the larynx. Comorbidities and prematurity increase the risk of other airway malacia. The prevalence of LM is relatively high in the middle-south part of Poland.

Keywords: Bronchomalacia; Comorbidities; Laryngomalacia; Tracheomalacia.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Funding This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Ethical standards All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent This study was retrospective, and formal consent is not required.

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