We recently suggested that proline might decrease the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake. Our purpose in the present study was to investigate the influence of proline on the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake and accumulation of body fat. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and allowed free access to the following diets for 3 wk: control (C), 5% proline (P), 5% histidine (H), or 5% histidine plus 10% proline (HP) diets. Food intake for 7 d and retroperitoneal fat tissue weight at the end of the experimental period of the HP diet group were greater than those of the H diet group, whereas no significant difference existed between the HP diet group and the C diet group. Our results indicate that proline inhibits the influence of histidine on food intake and accumulation of body fat.