Does prostate volume correlate with vitamin D deficiency among men undergoing prostate biopsy?

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017 Mar;20(1):55-60. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2016.41. Epub 2016 Oct 11.


Objectives: Recent studies demonstrate vitamin D is inversely correlated with BPH and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. We aim to clarify the associations of vitamin D with prostate volume.

Methods: This is an observational study investigating the associations of serum PSA, PSA density and prostate volume with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in PCa patients and men with negative biopsies seen in outpatient urology clinics in Chicago, IL, USA. There were 571 men (40-79 years old) with elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination with available prostate volume recorded from initial biopsy. The primary outcomes were the unadjusted associations of serum 25-OH D deficiency with prostate volume. The secondary outcomes were the adjusted associations using linear and logistic regression analysis.

Results: On univariate analysis, serum 25-OH D<20 ng ml-1 inversely correlated with prostate volume among all men undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (P=0.02), and this relationship remained significant for men with negative biopsy on stratified analysis. In adjusted models, controlling for age, serum PSA, 5-α reductase inhibitors use, obesity and PCa diagnosis, prostate volume was inversely associated with vitamin D (P<0.05) using serum vitamin D as a continuous and categorical variable. Logistic regression model also demonstrated an inverse association between vitamin D (continuous and categorical) and prostate volume ⩾40 grams.

Conclusion: Serum 25-OH D levels are inversely associated with overall prostate volume and enlarged prostate gland (⩾40 grams), especially in men with benign prostatic disease. Given the largely non-toxic effect of supplementation, consideration should be given to assessing vitamin D levels in men with benign prostatic disease in addition, to malignant prostatic disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers
  • Biopsy
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Size
  • Prostate / metabolism*
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / etiology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*


  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D