This study examined the impact of psychosocial work organization on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and the nine-year cumulative mortality incidence for a random sample of the male Swedish working population (N = 7219). A multiplicative measure was constructed to model the combined effects of psychological job demands, work-related social support and work control. Highly strained and isolated workers had a higher age-adjusted prevalence ratio for CVD morbidity and a higher age-adjusted risk ratio for CVD mortality when compared with those working under less strained and more collective conditions. Blue-collar workers showed the greatest risk for both morbidity and mortality when groups with highly isolated and strained conditions were compared to those in more collective and less strained conditions. Strained and isolated workers also had a substantially higher probability of developing and dying of CVD at a younger age than did those in less adverse environments.