Nanocellulose-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) Hydrogels for Cartilage Applications

Biomacromolecules. 2016 Nov 14;17(11):3714-3723. doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b01243. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Abstract

Double cross-linked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of sodium alginate and gelatin (SA/G) reinforced with 50 wt % cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have been prepared via the freeze-drying process. The IPNs were designed to incorporate CNC with carboxyl surface groups as a part of the network contribute to the structural integrity and mechanical stability of the hydrogel. Structural morphology studies of the hydrogels showed a three-dimensional (3D) network of interconnected pores with diameters in the range of 10-192 μm and hierarchical pores with a nanostructured pore wall roughness, which has potential benefits for cell adhesion. Significant improvements in the tensile strength and strain were achieved in 98% RH at 37 °C for CNC cross-linked IPNs. The high porosity of the scaffolds (>93%), high phosphate buffered saline (PBS) uptake, and cytocompatibility toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are confirmed and considered beneficial for use as a substitute for cartilage.

MeSH terms

  • Alginates / chemistry
  • Alginates / pharmacology
  • Cartilage / drug effects
  • Cartilage / growth & development
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cellulose / chemistry*
  • Cellulose / pharmacology
  • Dwarfism
  • Facies
  • Gelatin / chemistry
  • Gelatin / pharmacology
  • Glucuronic Acid / chemistry
  • Glucuronic Acid / pharmacology
  • Hexuronic Acids / chemistry
  • Hexuronic Acids / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate / chemistry*
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate / pharmacology
  • Microcephaly
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Polymers / pharmacology
  • Tensile Strength / drug effects
  • Tissue Engineering*

Substances

  • Alginates
  • Hexuronic Acids
  • Polymers
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate
  • Glucuronic Acid
  • Gelatin
  • Cellulose

Supplementary concepts

  • Seckel syndrome 1