Individuals with inherited immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, organ or bone marrow transplantation, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of infection with both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Chronic immunosuppression provides an environment for persistent HPV infection which carries a higher risk of malignant transformation. Screening guidelines have been developed or advocated for processes that have detectable premalignant lesions, such as anal cancer or cervical cancer. For other anatomic locations, such as cutaneous, penile, and oropharyngeal, a biopsy of suspicious lesions is necessary for diagnosis. HPV cannot be cultured from clinical specimens in the laboratory, and diagnosis relies on cytologic, histologic, or molecular methods.