Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Jan;38:83-96. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.08.003. Epub 2016 Sep 15.


Fetal macrosomia is defined as birth weight >4000 g and is associated with several maternal and fetal complications such as maternal birth canal trauma, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal asphyxia. Early identification of risk factors could allow preventive measures to be taken to avoid adverse perinatal outcomes. Prenatal diagnosis is based on two-dimensional ultrasound formulae, but accuracy is low, particularly at advanced gestation. Three-dimensional ultrasound could be an alternative to soft tissue monitoring, allowing better prediction of birth weight than two-dimensional ultrasound. In this article, we describe the definition, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, ultrasound monitoring, prenatal care, and delivery in fetal macrosomia cases.

Keywords: birth weight; fetal macrosomia; gestational diabetes mellitus; induction of labor; shoulder dystocia; three-dimensional ultrasound; two-dimensional ultrasound.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Birth Injuries / epidemiology
  • Birth Injuries / prevention & control
  • Cesarean Section
  • Delivery, Obstetric
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / prevention & control
  • Diabetes, Gestational / therapy
  • Dystocia / epidemiology*
  • Dystocia / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Fetal Hypoxia / epidemiology
  • Fetal Hypoxia / prevention & control
  • Fetal Macrosomia / diagnostic imaging
  • Fetal Macrosomia / epidemiology*
  • Fetal Macrosomia / prevention & control
  • Fetal Macrosomia / therapy
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Labor, Induced
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal