Pharmacogenomics of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters: Relevance to Precision Medicine

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2016 Oct;14(5):298-313. doi: 10.1016/j.gpb.2016.03.008. Epub 2016 Oct 8.


The interindividual genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters influence the efficacy and toxicity of numerous drugs. As a fundamental element in precision medicine, pharmacogenomics, the study of responses of individuals to medication based on their genomic information, enables the evaluation of some specific genetic variants responsible for an individual's particular drug response. In this article, we review the contributions of genetic polymorphisms to major individual variations in drug pharmacotherapy, focusing specifically on the pharmacogenomics of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Substantial frequency differences in key variants of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, as well as their possible functional consequences, have also been discussed across geographic regions. The current effort illustrates the common presence of variability in drug responses among individuals and across all geographic regions. This information will aid health-care professionals in prescribing the most appropriate treatment aimed at achieving the best possible beneficial outcomes while avoiding unwanted effects for a particular patient.

Keywords: Drug transporters; Genetic polymorphism; Pharmacogenomics; Phase-I drug-metabolizing enzymes; Precision medicine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics*
  • Disease / genetics*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics*
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Precision Medicine*


  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
  • Membrane Transport Proteins