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Review
, 18 (11), 38

Human Rabies: A 2016 Update

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Review

Human Rabies: A 2016 Update

Alan C Jackson. Curr Infect Dis Rep.

Abstract

Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is usually transmitted to humans by animal bites. Dogs are the most important vector worldwide. There are encephalitic and paralytic forms of the disease. There are differences in the clinical features of the disease acquired from dogs and bats. Neuroimaging is non-specific. Confirmatory diagnostic laboratory tests for rabies include detection of neutralizing anti-rabies virus antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and rabies virus antigen or RNA in tissues or fluids. Rabies is preventable after recognized exposures with wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin. Rabies is virtually always fatal after clinical disease develops, and there have only been rare survivors. The Milwaukee protocol, which includes therapeutic coma, has been shown to be ineffective and should no longer be used. The development of novel therapeutic approaches may depend on a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying the disease.

Keywords: Encephalitis; Hydrophobia; Paralytic rabies; Rabies; Rabies virus; Zoonosis.

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