We investigated early phenotypes caused by familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD) mutations in isogenic human iPSC-derived neurons. Analysis of neurons carrying fAD PS1 or APP mutations introduced using genome editing technology at the endogenous loci revealed that fAD mutant neurons had previously unreported defects in the recycling state of endocytosis and soma-to-axon transcytosis of APP and lipoproteins. The endocytosis reduction could be rescued through treatment with a β-secretase inhibitor. Our data suggest that accumulation of β-CTFs of APP, but not Aβ, slow vesicle formation from an endocytic recycling compartment marked by the transcytotic GTPase Rab11. We confirm previous results that endocytosis is affected in AD and extend these to uncover a neuron-specific defect. Decreased lipoprotein endocytosis and transcytosis to the axon suggest that a neuron-specific impairment in endocytic axonal delivery of lipoproteins and other key materials might compromise synaptic maintenance in fAD.
Keywords: APP; Alzheimer’s disease; FAD; PS1; endocytosis; iPSC; transcytosis.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.