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The Micronucleus Test-Most Widely Used in vivo Genotoxicity Test

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Review

The Micronucleus Test-Most Widely Used in vivo Genotoxicity Test

Makoto Hayashi. Genes Environ.

Abstract

Genotoxicity is commonly evaluated during the chemical safety assessment together with other toxicological endpoints. The micronucleus test is always included in many genotoxic test guidelines for long time in many classes of chemicals, e.g., pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural chemicals, food additives. Although the trend of the safety assessment of chemicals faces to animal welfare and in vitro systems are more welcome than the in vivo systems, the in vivo test systems are paid more attention in the field of genotoxicity because of its weight of evidence. In this review, I will summarize the following points: 1) historical consideration of the test development, 2) characteristics of the test including advantages and limitations, 3) new approaches considering to the animal welfare.

Keywords: Animal welfare; Chromosomal aberration; Historical consideration; Micronucleus; in vivo.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Comparison of the appearance between karyotypes and micronucleated cells. Karyotype and micronucleus (arrow) of fresh water fish (Carassius sp.) (a and d), mouse (b and e), and Chinese hamster (c and f). The micronuclei are simple structure independently from complexity of karyotype of each species

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