Controlling type-2 diabetes by inclusion of Cr-enriched yeast bread in the daily dietary pattern: a randomized clinical trial

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Feb;57(1):259-267. doi: 10.1007/s00394-016-1315-9. Epub 2016 Oct 12.


Purpose: Chromium (Cr)-enriched yeast supplementation to whole wheat bread (WWCrB) has been shown to ameliorate postprandial glycemic response in healthy subjects. The present study investigates the long-term benefit of WWCrB consumption for patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to a group receiving WWCrB or the plain whole wheat bread (WWB) group. Plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin resistance were determined, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention, which lasted for 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters related to the disease, markers of inflammation as well as body weight and energy balance were examined.

Results: At the end of the study, subjects of WWCrB group exerted lower levels of glucose, insulin and HbA1c and improved insulin resistance (P < 0.05 against before treatment). Area under the glucose curve attained during OGTT decreased after the intervention (28,117.5 ± 1266.4 vs. 31,588.5 ± 1187.5 mg min/dL before treatment, P < 0.05) with significantly lower values of glucose concentration at 0 and 60 min. A significant reduction in body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was observed (P < 0.05 against before treatment). Markers of inflammation and lipid profiles were not affected by WWCrB consumption.

Conclusions: Inclusion of WWCrB in the daily dietary pattern of diabetic patients resulted in improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, significant reduction in HbA1c, weight loss and lower SBP. Patients with inadequate glycemic control may benefit from the consumption of WWCrB.

Keywords: Bread; Cr-enriched yeast; Glucose tolerance; Insulin resistance; Type-2 diabetes mellitus; Weight management.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Bread* / analysis
  • Chromium / administration & dosage*
  • Chromium / analysis
  • Chromium / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Placebos
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / metabolism
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Triticum


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Placebos
  • Chromium