Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients

Med Biol Eng Comput. 2017 Aug;55(8):1163-1175. doi: 10.1007/s11517-016-1580-z. Epub 2016 Oct 12.


Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.

Keywords: Cerebrovascular pattern; Empirical mode decomposition; Entropy; MANOVA; Multiple sclerosis; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Ozone autohemotherapy; Time–frequency.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Flow Velocity / drug effects*
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Brain Mapping
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects*
  • Entropy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multiple Sclerosis / physiopathology*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / therapy*
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects*
  • Ozone / administration & dosage*
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared / methods
  • Thermodynamics
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Ozone