Subnormal levels of testosterone are frequently found in men of higher age category. Hypogonadal men have lower life expectancy than men with full androgenization and cardiovascular disease, obesity or diabetes is often associated with hypotestosteronemia. Low testosterone level is risk factor for these diseases. However, until now it is not clear whether testosterone deficiency is a cause or consequence of atherosclerosis or metabolic syndrome. A handful of symptoms and metabolic risk markers in hypogonadal men can be ameliorated by testosterone supplementation. Testosterone treatment increased sexual activity and well-being and had a moderate benefit with respect to depressive symptoms but no significant benefit to vitality. Testosterone has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors, but there is not clear whether it reduces mortality.Key words: civilization diseases - late onset hypogonadism - morbidity - mortality - testosterone - testosterone supplementation.