Male infertility: an overview of causes and treatment options

Br J Nurs. 2016 Oct 13;25(18):S35-S40. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2016.25.18.S35.


It is estimated that 3.5 million people in the UK, that is one in every seven couples, have fertility problems. In the past, it was assumed that the cause always lay with the woman. However, developments in science brought a greater understanding of the process of sperm production and conception. It is now known that up to 30% of fertility problems may be because of the man alone and up to 90% of these are down to low sperm count or low sperm quality or both. This paper offers a review of the causes and potential factors that affect male fertility together with an overview of diagnosis, investigation and current treatment options for these men.

Keywords: Male infertility; Men; Sperm count; Testosterone.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male / etiology*
  • Infertility, Male / therapy*
  • Male
  • Physical Examination