Background: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery.
Aims: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D.
Methods: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7). Resulting shotgun reads were annotated with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG).
Results: Body weight reduction and dietary change was similar 1 year after both surgery types. Identical proportions (n = 5/7) achieved diabetes remission (HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol without medications) 1 year after RYGB and SG. RYGB resulted in increased Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla but decreased Bacteroidetes phyla. SG resulted in increased Bacteroidetes phyla. Only an increase in Roseburia species was observed among those achieving diabetes remission, common to both surgery types. KEGG Orthology and pathway analysis predicted contrasting and greater gut microbiota metabolism changes after diabetes remission following RYGB than after SG. Those with persistent diabetes post-operatively had higher Desulfovibrio species pre-operatively.
Conclusions: Overall, RYGB produces greater and more predicted favourable changes in gut microbiota functional capacity than SG. An increase in Roseburia species was the only compositional change common to both types of surgery among those achieving diabetes remission.
Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Gut microbiota; Metagenome shotgun sequencing; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy.