The Anatomy of Caprine Female Urethra and Characteristics of Muscle and Bone Marrow Derived Caprine Cells for Autologous Cell Therapy Testing

Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017 Mar;300(3):577-588. doi: 10.1002/ar.23498. Epub 2016 Nov 25.


Cell therapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, many aspects of the procedure require further optimization. A large animal model is needed to reliably test cell delivery methods. In this study, we aim to determine suitability of the goat as an experimental animal for testing intraurethral autologous cell transplantation in terms of urethral anatomy and cell culture parameters. The experiments were performed in 12 mature/aged female goats. Isolated caprine muscle derived cells (MDC) were myogenic in vitro and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population was able to differentiate into adipo-, osteo- and chondrogenic lineages. The median yield of cells after 3 weeks of culture amounted 47 × 10(6) for MDC and 37 × 10(6) for MSC. Urethral pressure profile measurements revealed the mean functional urethral length of 3.75 ± 0.7 cm. The mean maximal urethral closure pressure amounted 63.5 ± 5.9 cmH2 O and the mean functional area was 123.3 ± 19.4 cm*cmH2 O. The omega- shaped striated urethral sphincter was well developed in the middle and distal third of the urethra and its mean thickness on cross section was 2.3 mm. In the proximal part of the urethra only loosely arranged smooth muscle fibers were identified. To conclude, presented data demonstrate that caprine MDC and MSC can be expanded in vitro in a repeatable manner even when mature or aged animals are cell donors. Results suggest that female caprine urethra has similar parameters to those reported in human and therefore the goat can be an appropriate experimental animal for testing intraurethral cell transplantation. Anat Rec, 00:000-000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:577-588, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: goat; mesenchymal stem cells; muscle stem cells; urethral anatomy; urethral pressure profile.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology*
  • Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy / methods
  • Female
  • Goats / anatomy & histology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Muscle Cells / cytology*
  • Muscle Development / physiology
  • Urethra / anatomy & histology*