Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Impact of Vaccination on Disease

Clin Liver Dis. 2016 Nov;20(4):607-628. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2016.06.006.


Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunization programs has resulted in substantial reductions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in previously high endemic countries. The key strategy for control of the HBV epidemic is birth dose and infant vaccination. Additional measures include use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and diagnosis of mothers at high risk of transmitting HBV and use of antiviral agents during pregnancy to decrease maternal DNA concentrations to undetectable concentrations. Despite the substantial decrease in HBV cases since vaccination introduction, implementation of birth dose vaccination in low-income and middle-income countries and vaccination of high-risk adults remain challenging.

Keywords: Birth dose; Hepatitis B vaccine; Hepatitis B virus; Perinatal transmission; Vaccine impact.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Global Health
  • Hepatitis B Antigens / immunology*
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / pharmacology*
  • Hepatitis B virus / immunology*
  • Hepatitis B* / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis B* / prevention & control
  • Hepatitis B* / virology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Vaccination / methods*


  • Hepatitis B Antigens
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines