Equivalent Decline in Inflammation Markers with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate vs. Tenofovir Alafenamide

EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov;13:321-327. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Oct 11.


Background: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and subsequent virologic suppression reduces immune activation and systemic inflammation.

Methods: We examined longitudinal changes in biomarkers of monocyte activation (sCD14, sCD163), and systemic (IL-6, hsCRP, sTNFR-I and D-dimer) and vascular (Lp-PLA2) inflammation in a subgroup (N=100 per arm) of participants enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF; TAF) to E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF; TDF) in treatment-naïve adults.

Results: For 194 participants (TAF, 98; TDF, 96), baseline levels of biomarkers did not differ by treatment arm; there were no differences in biomarker values between groups at weeks 12, 24, or 48 (p>0.05), except IL-6 at week 12 (p=0.012). Among all participants (combining groups), there were statistically significant declines from baseline observed for D-dimer, sCD163, and sTNFR-1 by week 12 and IL-6 by week 24. The proportion of participants with Lp-LA2 levels<200ng per mL (p=0.250) or hsCRP levels <3000mg per L (p=0.586) was unchanged through week 48.

Conclusions: We observed equivalent declines in biomarkers of monocyte activation and systemic inflammation in treatment-naïve adults treated with TAF or TDF for 48weeks, suggesting that TAF and TDF have equivalent impact on immune activation and inflammation.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Immune activation; Inflammation; Tenofovir alafenamide.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adenine / pharmacology
  • Adenine / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Biomarkers
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Male
  • ROC Curve
  • Tenofovir / pharmacology
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Tenofovir
  • GS-7340
  • Adenine