Kidney transplantation is associated with improved survival compared with maintenance dialysis. In the United States, post-transplant outcomes have steadily improved over the last several decades, with current 1-year allograft and patient survival rates well over 90%. Although short-term outcomes are similar to those in the international community, long-term outcomes appear to be inferior to those reported by other countries. Differences in recipient case mix, allocation polices, and health care coverage contribute to the long-term outcome disparity. This review presents the current status of kidney transplant outcomes in the United States and compares them with the most recent outcomes from Australia and New Zealand, Europe, and Canada. In addition, early trends after implementation of the new kidney allocation system in the United States and its potential impact on post-transplant outcomes are discussed.
Keywords: Allograft survival; Kidney transplant; Organ allocation; Outcomes; Patient survival.
Published by Elsevier Inc.