P value interpretations and considerations

J Thorac Dis. 2016 Sep;8(9):E928-E931. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.08.16.


Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification.

Keywords: 95% confidence interval; Biostatistics; P value; odds ratio.