Reproductive outcomes of patients being hospitalised with pelvic inflammatory disease

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Feb;37(2):228-232. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2016.1234439. Epub 2016 Oct 18.


This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of the adverse reproductive outcomes in patients who had been hospitalised with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The retrospective cohort study was conducted by contacting all the patients admitted with PID or tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) during January 2004 and December 2011. Those who were sexually active and aged 14-40 years were included. The exclusion criteria were no intention to conceive or undergoing hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral complete or partial salpingectomy. At a follow-up duration of 69 [IQR 51-93] months, of 94 eligible participants, 24 (25.5%) met the criteria of infertility, 15 (16.0%) had recurrent PID and 13 (13.8%) reported chronic pelvic pain. Less than half had subsequent pregnancies including 30 live births, seven miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy. There was no association between the adverse reproductive outcomes and length of hospital stay >6 days, surgical treatment and recurrent PID. After adjusting for age, parity, abortion, hospital stay, surgical treatment, TOA was the only negative predictive factor for live birth (aOR 0.23, 95%CI 0.07-0.79, p = .019). The high prevalence of adverse outcomes following PID or TOA should alert clinicians for proper long-term care.

Keywords: Live birth; pelvic inflammatory disease; reproductive outcomes; tubo-ovarian abscess.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Fallopian Tube Diseases / etiology*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Female / etiology*
  • Ovarian Diseases / etiology*
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / complications*
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproductive Health
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography
  • Young Adult