Equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit for wheaten cereal reduces postprandial glycaemia without decreasing satiety

J Nutr Sci. 2016 Sep 14;5:e37. doi: 10.1017/jns.2016.30. eCollection 2016.

Abstract

Kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. The effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'Hayward' green (GR) and 'Zesy002' (SunGold; SG) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (WB) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. A total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean BMI 24·5 kg/m2) consumed four meals, each containing 40 g available carbohydrate, in random order, after an overnight fast. The meals were: (1) glucose; (2) 70·29 g breakfast cereal; (3) 200 g of GR plus breakfast cereal (30·93 g); and (4) 200 g of SG plus breakfast cereal (27·06 g). Throughout the 180 min postprandial period, capillary blood glucose concentrations were monitored, and satiety rated by a visual analogue scale. Partial kiwifruit substitution of WB significantly reduced postprandial glycaemic response amplitude (glucose, 3·91; WB, 3·66; WB + GR, 2·36; WB + SG, 2·31 mmol/l; least significant difference (LSD) 0·64; P < 0·001) and incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (0-120 min) (glucose, 228; WB, 180; WB + GR, 133; WB + SG, 134 mmol/l × min; LSD 22·7; P < 0·001). The area between baseline and response remained positive in kiwifruit-substituted meals but became negative after 120 min with glucose and WB, indicating that kiwifruit improved homeostatic control. Kiwifruit substitution of cereal did not significantly reduce satiety. We conclude that either 'Hayward' or 'Zesy002' kiwifruit may be used in equicarbohydrate partial substitution of starchy staple foods to reduce glycaemic response and improve glucose homeostasis without decreasing satiety.

Keywords: Appetite; Carbohydrate exchanges; GI, glycaemic index; GR, Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ (marketed as Zespri® Green Kiwifruit); Glycaemic response; Kiwifruit; SG, Actinidia chinensis ‘Zesy002’ (marketed as Zespri® SunGold Kiwifruit); VAS, visual analogue scale; WB, wheat-based breakfast cereal.