Biologically active Low-molecular-weight, chromium-binding substance (LMCr) has been isolated from the liver of rabbits injected with potassium bicarbonate and cow's milk. This substance enhances glucose oxidation and lipogenesis from glucose in rat adipocytes [Yamamoto A. et al. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 165, 627-631; (1988) J. Nut. 118, 39-45]. LMCr was shown to lose its activity almost completely as an effectant of glucose metabolism when Cr was deleted under acidic conditions and separated from LMCr by EDTA-chelation and successive molecular-sieve chromatography. Reincorporation of Cr3+ into apo-LMCr resulted in 50-90% recovery of its original activity. These findings suggest that the biological activity of LMCr resides in Cr.