Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and dementia early in life. Blood biomarkers of AD neuropathology would be valuable, as non-AD intellectual disabilities of DS and AD dementia overlap clinically. We hypothesized that elevations of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and phosphorylated-tau in neuronal exosomes may document preclinical AD.
Methods: AD neuropathogenic proteins Aβ1-42, P-T181-tau, and P-S396-tau were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in extracts of neuronal exosomes purified from blood of individuals with DS and age-matched controls.
Results: Neuronal exosome levels of Aβ1-42, P-T181-tau, and P-S396-tau were significantly elevated in individuals with DS compared with age-matched controls at all ages beginning in childhood. No significant gender differences were observed.
Discussion: These early increases in Aβ1-42, P-T181-tau, and P-S396-tau in individuals with DS may provide a basis for early intervention as targeted treatments become available.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Amyloid-β; Blood biomarkers; Down syndrome; Hyperphosphorylated tau; Intellectual disability; Neuronal exosomes.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.