Covering: 2008 to 2015. A review on the isolation, biological activity and synthesis of pyranonaphthoquinone natural products from 2008-2015 is providedThis review discusses the isolation, biological activity and synthesis of pyranonaphthoquinone natural products, covering the years 2008-2015. The pyranonaphthoquinones are a group of metabolites sharing a common naphtho[2,3-c]pyran-5,10-dione ring system that have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms, plants and insects. In addition to their synthetically challenging molecular structures, pyranonaphthoquinones exhibit a wide array of biological activity, including anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer properties. The therapeutic potential of these compounds has led to a dynamic interplay between total synthesis and biological evaluation.