The zoonotic potential of giardiasis, as proposed by WHO since the late 70's, has been largely confirmed in this century. The genetic assemblages A and B of Giardia duodenalis are frequently isolated from human and canine hosts. Most of the assemblage A strains are not infective to adult mice, which can limit the range of studies regarding to biology of G. duodenalis, including virulence factors and the interaction with host immune system. This study aimed to determine the infectivity in mice of an assemblage A Giardia duodenalis strain (BHFC1) isolated from a dog and to classify the strain in sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII) through the phylogenetic analysis of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. In addition, the proteomic profile of soluble and insoluble protein fractions of trophozoites was analyzed by 2D-electrophoresis. Accordingly, trophozoites of BHFC1 were highly infective to Swiss mice. The phylogenetic analysis of tpi and gdh revealed that BHFC1 clustered to sub-assemblage AI. The proteomic map of soluble and insoluble protein fractions led to the identification of 187 proteins of G. duodenalis, 27 of them corresponding to hypothetical proteins. Considering both soluble and soluble fractions, the vast majority of the identified proteins (n = 82) were classified as metabolic proteins, mainly associated with carbon and lipid metabolism, including 53 proteins with catalytic activity. Some of the identified proteins correspond to antigens while others can be correlated with virulence. Besides a significant complementation to the proteomic data of G. duodenalis, these data provide an important source of information for future studies on various aspects of the biology of this parasite, such as virulence factors and host and pathogen interactions.