Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water). Then male pups received the same treatment as dams. Metabolic profile, leptin sensitivity, insulin receptor (IR) expression in liver, gut microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) in the colon, were analyzed at postnatal day 60 in the offspring (PND 60). CPF3.5 increased offspring's birth body weight (BW) but decreased BW at PND60. Inulin supplementation restored the BW at PND 60 to control levels. Hyperinsulinemia and decrease in insulin receptor β in liver were seen in CPF1 exposed rats. In contrast, hyperglycemia and decrease in insulin level were found in CPF3.5 rats. Inulin restored the levels of some metabolic parameters in CPF groups to ranges comparable with the controls. The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF interferes with metabolism with dose related effects evident at adulthood. By modulating microbiota population and fermentative activity, inulin corrected adult metabolic disorders of rats exposed to CPF during development. Prebiotics supply may be thus considered as a novel nutritional strategy to counteract insulin resistance and diabetes induced by a continuous pesticide exposure.