Investigation of sleep-wake rhythm in non-human primates without restraint during data collection

Exp Anim. 2017 Jan 27;66(1):51-60. doi: 10.1538/expanim.16-0073. Epub 2016 Oct 18.


To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed. In the present study, sleep recordings in unrestrained cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were conducted to characterize normal sleep. For the analysis of sleep-wake rhythms in cynomolgus monkeys, telemetry electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and electrooculography (EOG) signals were used. For the analysis of sleep-wake rhythms in marmosets, telemetry EEG and EOG signals were used. Both monkey species showed monophasic sleep patterns during the dark phase. Although non-rapid eye movement (NREM) deep sleep showed higher levels at the beginning of the dark phase in cynomolgus monkeys, NREM deep sleep rarely occurred during the dark phase in marmosets. Our results indicate that the use of telemetry in non-human primate models is useful for sleep studies, and that the different NREM deep sleep activities between cynomolgus monkeys and common marmoset monkeys are useful to examine sleep functions.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Callithrix / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Electrooculography
  • Macaca fascicularis / physiology*
  • Male
  • Polysomnography
  • Rats / physiology*
  • Sleep*
  • Telemetry / methods*
  • Wakefulness*