Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer: A Preclinical Study

Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 Jul;12(Suppl 4):S441-S445. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.191454.


Background: Colon cancer (CC) is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of mortality in the US when compared to India where prevalence is less. Possible reason could be the vegetarian diet comprising spices used in curry powders. Researchers believe that 70% of the cases are associated with diet. Spices have inherited a rich tradition for their flavor and medicinal properties. Researchers have been oriented towards spices present in food items for their antitumorigenic properties.

Objective: We investigated the effects of sambar as a preventive measure for 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced CC in Wistar albino rats.

Materials and methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6) namely control, DMH, and sambar. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were killed using anesthesia and the colons and livers were examined.

Results: All the treatment groups exhibited a significant change in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Sambar group showed a significant change in the colonic GSH when compared to both normal and DMH groups. A significant reduction in the liver GSH was noted in the sambar group. Only sambar group showed a significant change in the liver catalase levels when compared to DMH. There was a significant reduction in the colonic nitrite in the sambar-treated group; 2.94 ± 0.29 when compared to DMH control at 8.09 ± 1.32. On the contrary, a significant rise in the liver nitrite levels was observed in the sambar-treated rats.

Conclusion: Sambar may prevent the risk of CC when consumed in dietary proportions.

Summary: Consumption of sambar significantly reduced aberrant crypt foci in DMH-induced colon cancer modelSambar treatment prevented DMH-induced oxidative changes in the colonic tissue, indicating its antioxidant roleSambar comprises a variety of spices that exhibited both pro- and antioxidant properties in different tissues, leading to its overall beneficial effect in this model. Abbreviations used: ACF: aberrant crypt foci, CC: colon cancer, DMH: 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, GSH: glutathione, IL-6: Interleukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Keywords: Aberrant crypt foci; dimethyl hydrazine; sambar; spices.