Background: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) of the Finnish type, NPHS1, is the most severe form of CNS. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in NPHS1 patients in Europe were analysed using data from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. As NPHS1 is most prevalent in Finland and the therapeutic approach differs from that in many other countries, we compared outcomes in Finnish and other European patients.
Methods: NPHS1 mutations were confirmed in 170 children with CNS who initiated RRT (dialysis or renal transplantation) between 1991 and 2012. Finnish (n = 66) and non-Finnish NPHS1 patients (n = 104) were compared with respect to treatment policy, age at first RRT and renal transplantation (RTX), patient and graft survival, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and growth. Age-matched patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) served as controls.
Results: Finnish NPHS1 patients were significantly younger than non-Finnish patients, both at the start of RRT and at the time of RTX. We found similar overall 5-year patient survival on RRT (91 %) and graft survival (89 %) in both NPHS1 groups and CAKUT controls. At the start of RRT, height standard deviation score (SDS) was higher in Finnish patients than in non-Finnish patients (mean [95 % CI]: -1.31 [-2.13 to -0.49] and -3.0 [-4.22 to -1.91], p < 0.01 respectively), but not at 5 years of age. At 5 years of age height and body mass index (BMI) SDS were similar to those of CAKUT controls.
Conclusions: Overall, 5-year patient and graft survival of both Finnish and non-Finnish NPHS1 patients on RRT were excellent and comparable with CAKUT patients with equally early RRT onset and was independent of the timing of RRT initiation and RTX.
Keywords: Congenital nephrotic syndrome; Dialysis; Graft survival; Kidney transplantation; NPHS1; Pediatrics.