Long-Term Outcome of Combined (Percutaneous Intramyocardial and Intracoronary) Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Post Myocardial Infarction: The 5-Year MYSTAR Study

PLoS One. 2016 Oct 20;11(10):e0164908. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164908. eCollection 2016.


Objective: The long-term (5-year) outcome of early (3-6 weeks after acute myocardial infarction [AMI], BM-MNC Early group) and late (3-4 months after AMI, BM-MNC Late group) combined (percutaneous intramyocardial and intracoronary) delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) was evaluated in patients with ejection fractions (EF) between 30-45% post-AMI.

Methods: Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and hospitalization were recorded. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography was performed in a subgroup of patients. Pre-cell therapy myocardial voltage values of treated areas (assessed by NOGA mapping) were correlated with clinical outcome.

Results: Five-year MACCE incidences (7.4%. vs 24.1%) and the composite of all adverse events (11.1% vs 27.6%) were not different between the Early and Late treatment groups. The significant LV-EF increase at 1-year follow-up was preserved at the 5-year control (from baseline to 5-year: 5.3%, 95% CI:0.5-10.1, and 5.7%, 95% CI:1.7-9.6, p<0.05 in the Early and Late groups, respectively), with no significant changes between 1- and 5-year follow-ups. Similarly, RVEF increased significantly from baseline to the 5-year follow-up (Early group: 5.4%, 95% CI:1.0-9.6; and Late group: 8.4%, 95% CI:4.5-12.3). Lower baseline levels of myocardial viability of the treated cardiac area (6.3±2.4 vs 8.2±3.0 mV, p<0.05) were associated with incidence of MACCE.

Conclusions: Percutaneous combined delivery of autologous BM-MNCs is feasible and safe after 5 years, and may result in sustained improvement of cardiac function at 5 years in patients with low EF post-AMI (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01395212).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / transplantation*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Function / physiology

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01395212

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.