Evaluation of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water to Replace Traditional Phosphate Enhancement Solutions: Effects on Water Holding Capacity, Tenderness, and Sensory Characteristics

Meat Sci. 2017 Jan;123:211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.10.007. Epub 2016 Oct 14.


Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes. Despite its alkaline nature EOH chops exuded more water (P<0.05) than EOK, IS, or CON chops. Control chops were similar (P>0.05) to EOK, however CON and EOK both lost more moisture (P<0.05) than IS. The use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water did not improve WBSF or sensory characteristics compared to IS treated chops. As a stand-alone enhancement solution alkaline electrolyzed reduced water was not a suitable replacement for industry standard solutions.

Keywords: Alkaline; Enhancement; Pork; Water; Water holding capacity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cations / analysis*
  • Cooking
  • Electrolytes / analysis*
  • Food Additives / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactates / analysis
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Phosphates / analysis*
  • Potassium / analysis
  • Red Meat / analysis*
  • Sodium Hydroxide / analysis
  • Solutions
  • Swine
  • Taste
  • Water / analysis
  • Water / chemistry*


  • Cations
  • Electrolytes
  • Food Additives
  • Lactates
  • Phosphates
  • Solutions
  • Water
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Potassium