Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are found ubiquitously in the environment. Since exposure to NTM is universal, infection likely represents underlying host susceptibility factors. Anti-IFN-ɣ autoantibodies have been described previously in patients with NTM. Up to 88 % of patients with disseminated NTM or other opportunistic infections have high-titer anti-IFN-ɣ autoantibodies, compared with 2 % of patients with TB and healthy controls.
Findings: We report a unique presentation of a patient with anti-IFN-ɣ autoantibodies with disseminated NTM infection who presents with panuveitis with multifocal retinitis and vasculitis. Treatment with systemic anti tubercular therapy resulted in complete clinical resolution with good visual recovery.
Conclusions: Patients with anti-IFN-ɣ autoantibodies present with a novel syndrome that links autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. This case emphasizes the importance of testing for anti-IFN-ɣ autoantibodies in patients with disseminated mycobacterial infection.