In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7-9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review.
Keywords: Breast Neoplasms; Genital Neoplasms, Female; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Precision Medicine.