In this 12-month, multicenter, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study, de novo renal transplant recipients (RTxRs) were randomized (1:1) to receive everolimus plus low-dose tacrolimus (EVR+LTac) or mycophenolate mofetil plus standard-dose Tac (MMF+STac) with induction therapy (basiliximab or rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin). Noninferiority of composite efficacy failure rate (treated biopsy-proven acute rejection [tBPAR]/graft loss/death/loss to follow-up) in EVR+LTac versus MMF+STac was missed by 1.4%, considering the noninferiority margin of 10% (24.6% vs. 20.4%; 4.2% [-3.0, 11.4]). Incidence of tBPAR (19.1% vs. 11.2%; p < 0.05) was significantly higher, while graft loss (1.3% vs. 3.9%; p < 0.05) and composite of graft loss/death/lost to follow-up (6.1% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.05) were significantly lower in EVR+LTac versus MMF+STac groups, respectively. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar between EVR+LTac and MMF+STac groups (63.1 [22.0] vs. 63.1 [19.5] mL/min/1.73 m2 ) and safety was comparable. In conclusion, EVR+LTac missed noninferiority versus MMF+STac based on the 10% noninferiority margin. Further studies evaluating optimal immunosuppression for improved efficacy will guide appropriate dosing and target levels of EVR and LTac in RTxRs.
Keywords: antiproliferative agent: mycophenolate mofetil (MMF); calcineurin inhibitor: tacrolimus; clinical research/practice; immunosuppressant; immunosuppressive regimens; kidney transplantation/nephrology; mechanistic target of rapamycin: everolimus; minimization/withdrawal.
© 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.