Atomic model for the membrane-embedded V O motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase

Nature. 2016 Nov 3;539(7627):118-122. doi: 10.1038/nature19828. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Abstract

Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-powered proton pumps involved in processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, secondary transport, TOR signalling, and osteoclast and kidney function. ATP hydrolysis in the soluble catalytic V1 region drives proton translocation through the membrane-embedded VO region via rotation of a rotor subcomplex. Variability in the structure of the intact enzyme has prevented construction of an atomic model for the membrane-embedded motor of any rotary ATPase. We induced dissociation and auto-inhibition of the V1 and VO regions of the V-ATPase by starving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing us to obtain a ~3.9-Å resolution electron cryomicroscopy map of the VO complex and build atomic models for the majority of its subunits. The analysis reveals the structures of subunits ac8c'c″de and a protein that we identify and propose to be a new subunit (subunit f). A large cavity between subunit a and the c-ring creates a cytoplasmic half-channel for protons. The c-ring has an asymmetric distribution of proton-carrying Glu residues, with the Glu residue of subunit c″ interacting with Arg735 of subunit a. The structure suggests sequential protonation and deprotonation of the c-ring, with ATP-hydrolysis-driven rotation causing protonation of a Glu residue at the cytoplasmic half-channel and subsequent deprotonation of a Glu residue at a luminal half-channel.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / chemistry
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Arginine / chemistry
  • Arginine / metabolism
  • Cryoelectron Microscopy*
  • Glutamic Acid / chemistry
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Hydrolysis
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Subunits / chemistry
  • Protein Subunits / metabolism
  • Protons
  • Rotation
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / ultrastructure*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / chemistry*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / ultrastructure*
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / chemistry*
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / ultrastructure*

Substances

  • Protein Subunits
  • Protons
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Arginine
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases