Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

Acta Odontol Scand. 2017 Jan;75(1):12-20. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2016.1242154. Epub 2016 Oct 24.


Objective: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration.

Material and methods: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed as follows: clinical conventional (CdMEmfs); clinical ICCMS™ (CdepiMEmfs); combined conventional (C + RdMEmfs) and combined ICCMS™ (C + RdepiMEmfs).

Results: The prevalence of CdMEmfs was: Cohort A: 32%; Cohort B: 59%; Cohort C: 67.5%, increasing to 73.5%, 99.8% and 100%, respectively, with the C + R depiMEmfs. The CdMEmfs means doubled when initial caries lesions (Cdepi) and radiographs (R) were included. The d component corresponded to over two-thirds of the caries experience. Findings on the radiographs significantly raised caries experience prevalence and means (p < .02), detecting primarily approximal lesions. Surfaces with highest caries frequency were occlusal/approximal of molar teeth and buccal of upper incisor teeth.

Conclusion: Participants' caries experience was high. The radiographic assessment significantly contributed to caries experience. Molar and upper incisor teeth were most prone to caries.

Keywords: Dental caries; ICCMS™; epidemiology; primary dentition; radiography.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Colombia / epidemiology
  • DMF Index*
  • Dental Caries / diagnostic imaging
  • Dental Caries / epidemiology*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incisor / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Molar / diagnostic imaging
  • Physical Examination
  • Prevalence
  • Radiography, Bitewing / methods
  • Tooth Crown / diagnostic imaging
  • Tooth Demineralization / pathology
  • Tooth Loss / epidemiology
  • Tooth, Deciduous / diagnostic imaging