The inositol pyrophosphates (diphosphoinositol polyphosphates), which include 1-InsP7, 5-InsP7, and InsP8, are highly 'energetic' signaling molecules that play important roles in many cellular processes, particularly with regards to phosphate and bioenergetic homeostasis. Two classes of kinases synthesize the PP-InsPs: IP6Ks and PPIP5Ks. The significance of the IP6Ks - and their 5-InsP7 product - has been widely reported. However, relatively little is known about the biological significance of the PPIP5Ks. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on developments in our understanding of key features of the PPIP5Ks, which we believe strengthens the hypothesis that their catalytic activities serve important cellular functions. Central to this discussion is the recent discovery that the PPIP5K is a rare example of a single protein that catalyzes a kinase/phosphatase futile cycle.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.