Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers

J Voice. 2017 Mar;31(2):246.e11-246.e19. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.08.007. Epub 2016 Oct 21.


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music.

Method: Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group.

Results: The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group.

Conclusions: The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre.

Keywords: Abusive behaviors; Flamenco singer; Risk factors; Vocal fatigue; Voice.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Habits*
  • Health Behavior*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Music*
  • Occupational Diseases / diagnosis
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology
  • Occupational Diseases / physiopathology
  • Occupational Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Occupational Health*
  • Occupations*
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Care
  • Singing*
  • Spain
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Verbal Behavior
  • Voice Disorders / diagnosis
  • Voice Disorders / etiology
  • Voice Disorders / physiopathology
  • Voice Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Voice Quality*
  • Young Adult