Background: Coenzyme Q10 has antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects. CoQ10 supplementation is known to have neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate both histopathologic and behavioral whether Coenzyme Q10 is protective against trimethyltin chloride (TMT) induced hippocampal damage.
Materials and methods: This was an experimental study. Thirty-six Balb/c mice were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group; 2) sham group of mice that received a 100 µL intraperitoneal injection (IP) of sesame oil; 3) TMT group of mice that received a single 2.5 mg/kg/day IP injection of TMT; and 4) TMT + CoQ10 group of mice that received a 10 mg/kg IP injection of CoQ10. Body weight and Morris water maze (MWM) responses were investigated. In addition, the dentate gyrus neurons of the hippocampus were evaluated histopathologically by light and electron microscopes.
Results: This study revealed that the body weight scale was found to be significantly higher in the CoQ10 group (21.39 ± 2.70), compared to the TMT group (19.39 ± 2.74) (P < 0.05). In the TMT group, the animals showed body a weight loss that was significantly lower than that of the control group (22.33 ± 3.06) (P < 0.05). Our results showed that CoQ10 provided protection against MWM deficits. Furthermore, TMT impaired the ability of mice to locate the hidden platform, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Microscopic studies showed that TMT caused histopathological changes in the dentate gyrus and increased the number of necrotic neurons (476 ± 78.51), compared to the control group (208 ± 40.84) (P < 0.001). But, CoQ10 significantly attenuated (31 9 ± 60.08) the density of necrotic neurons compared to TMT (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that Coenzyme Q10 diminished neuronal necrosis and improved learning memory. Part of its beneficial effect is due to its potential to discount oxidative stress.
Keywords: CoQ10; Dentate Gyrus; Learning and Memory; Trimethyltin Chloride.